Corticosteroid-modulated immune activation in the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromeCorticosteroid-modulated immune activation in the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Epidemiology and social medicine (ESOC)
2012New York, 2012
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. - New York, 1994, currens
186(2012):4, p. 369-377
University of Antwerp
Rationale: HIV-tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an immunopathological reaction to mycobacterial antigens induced by antiretroviral therapy. Prednisone reduces morbidity in TB-IRIS, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To determine the effect of prednisone on the inflammatory response in TB-IRIS (antigen-specific effector T cells, cytokines, and chemokines). Methods: Blood was taken from participants in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for TB-IRIS, at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Participants received prednisone at a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks followed by 0.75 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, or placebo at identical dosages. Measurements and Main Results: Analyses included IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on peripheral blood mononuclear cells after restimulation with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis of corresponding tissue culture supernatants, and Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis of serum. Fifty-eight participants with TB-IRIS (31 receiving prednisone, 27 receiving placebo) were included. In serum, significant decreases in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IFN-gamma-induced protein-10 concentrations during prednisone, but not placebo, treatment were observed. No differences in ELISPOT responses comparing prednisone and placebo groups were shown in response to ESAT-6 (early secreted antigen target-6), Acr1, Acr2, 38-kD antigen, or heat-killed H37Rv M. tuberculosis. Purified protein derivative ELISPOT responses increased over 4 weeks in the prednisone group and decreased in the placebo group (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The beneficial effects of prednisone in TB-IRIS appear to be mediated via suppression of predominantly proinflammatory cytokine responses of innate immune origin, not via a reduction of the numbers of antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood.