Title
A simple road for the transformation of few-layer graphene into MWNTs A simple road for the transformation of few-layer graphene into MWNTs
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Washington, D.C. ,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Journal of the American Chemical Society. - Washington, D.C.
Volume/pages
134(2012) :32 , p. 13310-13315
ISSN
0002-7863
ISI
000307487200034
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
We report the direct formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) by ultrasonication of graphite in dimethylformamide (DMF) upon addition of ferrocene aldehyde (Fc-CHO). The tubular structures appear exclusively at the edges of graphene layers and contain Fe clusters. Pc in conjunction with benzyl aldehyde, or other Fc derivatives, does not induce formation of NT. Higher amounts of Fc-CHO added to the dispersion do not increase significantly MWNT formation. Increasing the temperature reduces the amount of formation of MWNTs and shows the key role of ultrasound-induced cavitation energy. It is concluded that Fc-CHO first reduces the concentration of radical reactive species that slice graphene into small moieties, localizes itself at the edges of graphene, templates the rolling up of a sheet to form a nanoscroll, where it remains trapped, and finally accepts and donates unpaired electron to the graphene edges and converts the less stable scroll into a MWNT. This new methodology matches the long held notion that CNTs are rolled up graphene layers. The proposed mechanism is general and will lead to control the production of carbon nanostructures by simple ultrasonication treatments.
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