Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuroradiculopathy : three cases and a review of the literature
Riekhoff, Antoinetta G.M.
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
European journal of paediatric neurology. - London
, p. 315-331
University of Antwerp
Background: Chronic inflammatory demyehnating polyneuroradiculopathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, causing demyelination and even axonal degeneration. In children, abnormal gait as a first sign of muscle weakness is a frequent reason to seek medical attention. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical characteristics, electromyography and nerve conduction studies, and elevated protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Aims: We present three new cases of CIDP. The literature was reviewed in order to obtain more information on presentation, outcome and treatment strategies world-wide. Results: The course of disease can be relapsing-remitting or chronic-progressive. From case series it is known that first-line immunotherapy (intravenously administered immunoglobulin, corticosteroids or plasmapheresis) is initially of benefit in most children with CIDP. There is little evidence, however, on second-line therapies as azathioprine, cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, methothrexate, cyclophosphamide and IFN alpha. Although the outcome of children with CIDP is generally regarded to be good, disease related disability can be severe. Conclusion: Childhood CIDP is rare. In general and in comparison to adults, children tend to have a more acute progressive onset, with more severe symptoms. Showing a higher tendency towards a relapsing-remitting course, children often show a better and faster improvement after therapy, and a more favorable outcome. Swift recognition of CIDP and empiric start of treatment are considered important to avoid potentially irreversible axonal damage and associated disability. Response to first-line therapies is usually favorable, however recommendations regarding the choice of second-line therapy can only be made on the basis of current practice described in case reports. Safety and efficacy data are insufficient. The cases described show that trial and error are often involved in finding an optimal treatment strategy, especially in those patients refractory to first-line treatment or with a prolonged course. Clinical experience with immunomodulatory treatment is paramount when treating children with CIDP. (C) 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.