Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis and molecular characterization of mycobacterium bovis strains in urban settings in Niger
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Transboundary and emerging diseases. - Oxford
, p. 490-502
University of Antwerp
A retrospective and a longitudinal survey were carried out at the abattoir of Niamey. Results showed a highly significant difference in suspected tuberculosis (TB) gross lesions among different animal species (P < 0.0001). The proportion of carcasses with TB-like lesions was 0.19% among cattle, 0.11% among camels, 0.001% among sheep and 0.0006% among goats. In cattle, cows are significantly more affected than the other categories (P < 0.001). Also in cattle, TB-like lesions are mostly localized in the lungs (92.77%) followed by the lymph nodes (50.87%) and the liver (32.40%). The prevalence of gross lesions compatible with bovine TB (BTB) is strongly influenced by the season (P < 0.0001), is closely correlated with the origin of the animals (P < 0.001) and has a negative impact on the weight of affected animals (P < 0.0001). Sixty-two samples of suspected TB gross lesions were subject to microbiological analysis and molecular typing of strains. Mycobacterium bovis was identified in 18 animals showing five different spoligotypes, belonging to type African 1 previously identified in Central and West Africa. In addition, a profile (SB1982) not previously reported distinguished by the absence of spacers 3, 4, 9, 16, 22, 30 and 3943 has been characterized in this study. To assess risk factors for BTB transmission, a questionnaire on animal husbandry practices, food habits, and clinical signs of TB in animals and humans was submitted to the heads of 1131 randomly selected households. The main risk factors identified are consumption of unpasteurized milk (91%) and lack of hygiene within households (3274%). Clinical signs that could be attributed to TB were also reported both in humans and in animals of the households.