Current perception thresholds in the lower urinary tract : sine- and square-wave currents studied in young healthy volunteers
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
University Hospital Antwerp
Neurourology and urodynamics. - New York
, p. 261-266
University of Antwerp
Aims: To establish normative current perception threshold (CPT) values with neuroselective sine-wave current in the lower urinary tract and to compare these values with square-wave current CPTs. Materials and Methods: 10 female and 8 male healthy volunteers were used for this study. A filling cystometry was performed and CPTs were determined with square-wave current at a frequency of 2.5 Hz and with neuroselective sine-wave current at 5 (C-fiber), 250 (A delta-fiber), and 2000 Hz (A beta-fiber) in the bladder, the posterior, and the distal urethra. Results: Bladder CPTs were significantly higher compared with CPTs in the posterior urethra (P < 0.028) and in the distal urethra (P < 0.002) with all three sine-wave frequencies. No significant difference was found with any sine-wave frequency between the posterior and distal urethra (P > 0.30). Using square-wave pulses at 2.5 Hz, CPTs decreased towards the distal urethra, with a significant difference between the three stimulation sites (P < 0.0001). At all sites tested, the CPT ' s determined with sine-wave current at 2000 Hz were significantly higher than those at 250 Hz (P < 0.002) and 5 Hz (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found between 5 Hz and 250 Hz at any site in the LUT (P > 0.50). At all sites, CPTs determined with square-wave pulses at 2.5 Hz were significantly higher than those determined with sine-wave current at all frequencies (P < 0.001). CPTs determined with all sine-wave currents were not correlated with CPTs using square-wave pulses. There was no correlation between the volumes at which sensation of filling occurred and the CPTs. Conclusions: We described normative values in young healthy volunteers at three sites in the LUT using sine-wave current. Although this type of current is said to be neuroselctive, this needs to be confirmed. Stimulation with sine-wave current is different and might be more physiologic compared to square-wave stimulation. Our data show that sine-wave current stimulation at 5 Hz, 250 Hz, and 2000 Hz can probably not be used as a semi-objective measurement of the sensation of bladder filling because no correlation was found between CPTs and the cystometeric sensation of filling. Neurourol. Urodynam. 24:261-266, 2005. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.