Cholecystokinin- and cholecystokinin-B-receptor gene polymorphisms in panic disorder
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Journal of neural transmission : supplementum. - Wien, 1974, currens
, p. 147-156
University of Antwerp
Panic disorder like other neuropsychiatric disorders is believed to be caused by multiple psychosocial and biological factors. Several lines of evidence point to a role for the peptide neurotransmitter cholecystokinin in the pathogenesis of panic disorder. We therefore determined the allele and genotype frequencies of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CCK gene (-36C > T) and one CT repeat polymorphism in the CCK-B-receptor gene in a German panic disorder sample (n = 115 for CCK gene polymorphism, n = I I I for CCK-B-receptor polymorphism) and compared them with gender and age matched controls. The length of the polymorphic CT repeat alleles varies between 146 bp and 180 bp. We first analysed the results by a permutation test which provided evidence for heterogeneity between patients and controls (p = 0.002). We then analysed the data as a di-allelic polymorphism with a short (146-162 bp) and a long (164-180 bp) allele and as a tetra-allelic polymorphism with 4 alleles (146-154 bp, 156-162 bp, 164-170 bp, 172-180 bp). In the di-allelic analysis as well as in the tetra-allelic analysis there was an excess of the longer allele (p = 0.001) or the two longer alleles (p = 0.041) respectively in patients with panic disorder. No difference between groups was observed for the -36C > T polymorphism. Our findings are consistent with the notion that genetic variation in the CCK neurotransmitter system contributes to the pathogenesis of panic disorder.