Simple worldwide gold standards (cfr Enoch) for a functional examination approach to neuro-ophthalmological signs (the essentials)
Neuro-ophthalmology. - Amsterdam
, p. 49-61
University of Antwerp
There is a definite need for standardized examination methods to detect defects at the level of the different subsystem-afferent pathways as early as possible. Standardized methods are also needed for screening ( acuity, pattern, contrast, flicker, color, movement, direction) as their impairment may often suggest neuro-ophthalmological disease. This is especially interesting when the eye fundus is unremarkable and refraction and visual acuity cannot to trusted because of ocular refractive media opacities, and in cases where suppressive visual loss may be present. Physicians must not rely on one single objective or subjective test, but consider a combination of several tests, including full fundus examination. They should start with the good eye.