The clinical, metabolic and endocrine features and the quality of life in adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma compared with adult-onset craniopharyngioma
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
European journal of endocrinology. - Copenhagen
, p. 557-567
University of Antwerp
Background: Craniopharyngioma is a parasellar tumour that, although benign, tends to behave aggressively. It can occur at any age but most commonly presents in childhood or adolescence. Objectives: to investigate the frequency and severity of problems associated with craniopharyngioma, using the large international database (KIMS) for adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD), and to assess the differences between the adult onset (AO, aged 18 or above) disease and adults with childhood onset (CO) craniopharyngioma. Design: Inclusion criteria were: an established diagnosis of craniopharyngioma, severe GHD and no recent GH treatment. These criteria were fulfilled by 393 (184 female, 209 male) patients: 241 had AO (mean age 28.7 +/- 8.7 years) and 152 had CO disease (age 42.0 +/- 12.3 years). Disease history, clinical features and anthropometric data were recorded at the time of enrolment in the database, and body composition, serum IGF-I, serum lipids and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Results: Peak age at onset of craniopharyngioma was 15-20 years. Ninety percent of patients had been treated surgically. CO patients were shorter than AO patients and had much lower IGF-I standard deviation scores (SDS). The majority had hypopituitarism and over 60% had diabetes insipidus. Body mass index (BMI) was higher in AO males (30.2 +/- 5.5) than in CO males (28.5 +/- 7.5); waist circumference was also greater. Obesity was more common in AO patients (51.8% vs 39.1%). Body composition did not differ between groups. Cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in AO than in CO patients, but high density lipoprotein (HDL)- and tow density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol did not differ. Quality of life, assessed by Quality of Life-Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA) and the Nottingham Health Profile, was markedly reduced in all groups with no significant differences between them: the OoL-AGHDA score correlated with age at onset of both craniopharyngioma and GHD, and also with BMI in AO patients. Conclusions: these data emphasise the generally poor state of health of patients treated for craniopharyngioma, with respect to endocrine and metabolic function, and also the markedly reduced quality of life. In addition to GHD, most patients have evidence of hypothalamic damage with associated obesity, diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism. Adults with CO craniopharyngioma were shorter, had lower IGF-I. lower BMI, less obesity and slightly lower blood lipid levels than patients with AO craniopharyngioma.