Frontal lobe symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and dementia
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
New York, N.Y. :Nova Science, 2013
Horizons in neuroscience research : volume 10 / Costa, Andres [edit.]; et al. [edit.]
University of Antwerp
This chapter reviews recent developments and research findings on frontal lobe symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia as compared to cognitively healthy elderly. MCI is a clinical concept that indentifies subjects who are in an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. The prevalence of certain frontal lobe symptoms (loss of insight and judgment, restlessness) in MCI patients is intermediate between cognitively healthy elderly and Alzheimers disease (AD) patients. Also the severity of frontal lobe symptoms in MCI is intermediate. In MCI patients, especially two frontal lobe symptoms (disinhibition, aspontaneity) are considered risk factors for patients being troubling to the caregiver or dangerous to themselves. Once the dementia stage is reached, patients with AD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) display more frontal lobe symptoms in the advanced disease stages as compared to disease onset, suggesting gradual frontal lobe involvement as the disease progresses. The nature of frontal lobe symptoms related to dementia severity differs between AD, DLB and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, suggesting different patterns of frontal lobe involvement. In patients with FTD, frontal lobe symptoms are severe in the mild, moderate and severe dementia stages although the nature of frontal lobe symptoms depended on disease severity. These data point to the potential diagnostic value of behavioral observation of frontal lobe symptoms for (differential) dementia diagnosis, especially at the earliest disease stages.