Heating mechanism in direct current superposed single-frequency and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Bristol :Institute of Physics
Plasma sources science and technology / Institute of Physics. - Bristol, 1992, currens
, p. 1-8
University of Antwerp
In this work particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision simulations are performed to study the heating mechanism and plasma characteristics in direct current (dc) superposed radio-frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasmas, operated both in single-frequency (SF) and dual-frequency (DF) regimes. An RF (60/2 MHz) source is applied on the bottom electrode to sustain the discharge, and a dc source is fixed on the top electrode. The heating mechanism appears to be very different in dc superposed SF and DF discharges. When only a single source of 60 MHz is applied, the plasma bulk region is reduced by the dc source, thus the ionization rate and hence the electron density decrease with rising dc voltage. However, when a DF source of 60 and 2 MHz is applied, the electron density can increase upon addition of a dc voltage, depending on the gap length and applied dc voltage. This is explained from the spatiotemporal ionization rates in the DF discharge. In fact, a completely different behavior is observed for the ionization rate in the two half-periods of the LF source. In the first LF half-period, the situation resembles the dc superposed SF discharge, and the reduced plasma bulk region due to the negative dc bias results in a very small effective discharge area and a low ionization rate. On the other hand, in the second half-period, the negative dc bias is to some extent counteracted by the LF voltage, and the sheath close to the dc electrode becomes particularly thin. Consequently, the amplitude of the high-frequency sheath oscillations at the top electrode is largely enhanced, while the LF sheath at the bottom electrode is in its expanding phase and can thus well confine the high-energy electrons. Therefore, the ionization rate increases considerably in this second LF half-period. Furthermore, in addition to the comparison between SF and DF discharges and the effect of gap length and dc voltage, the effect of secondary electrons is examined.