Title
Craniofacial characteristics of fragile X syndrome in mouse and manCraniofacial characteristics of fragile X syndrome in mouse and man
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Research group
Vision lab
Bio-Imaging lab
Cognitive Genetics (COGNET)
Publication type
article
Publication
Leiden,
Subject
Chemistry
Biology
Human medicine
Source (journal)
European journal of human genetics / European Society of Human Genetics. - Leiden
Volume/pages
21(2013):8, p. 816-823
ISSN
1018-4813
ISI
000321951100006
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
For a disorder as common as fragile X syndrome, the most common hereditary form of cognitive impairment, the facial features are relatively ill defined. An elongated face and prominent ears are the most commonly accepted dysmorphic hallmarks. We analysed 3D facial photographs of 51 males and 15 females with full FMR1 mutations and 9 females with a premutation using dense-surface modelling techniques and a new technique that forms a directed graph with normalized face shapes as nodes and edges linking those with closest dysmorphism. In addition to reconfirming known features, we confirmed the occurrence of some at an earlier age than previously recorded. We also identified as yet unrecorded facial characteristics such as reduced facial depth, hypoplasticity of the nasal bonecartilage interface and narrow mid-facial width exaggerating ear prominence. As no consistent craniofacial abnormalities had been reported in animal models, we analysed micro-CT images of the fragile X mouse model. Results indicated altered dimensions in the mandible and both outer and inner skull, with the latter potentially reflecting differences in neuroanatomy. We extrapolated the mouse results to face shape differences of the human fragile X face.
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