Title
Incorporation of pure fullerene into organoclays : towards <tex>$C_{60}$</tex>-pillared clay structures Incorporation of pure fullerene into organoclays : towards <tex>$C_{60}$</tex>-pillared clay structures
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Weinheim ,
Subject
Physics
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Chemistry: a European journal. - Weinheim
Volume/pages
19(2013) :24 , p. 7937-7943
ISSN
0947-6539
ISI
000319825500035
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
In this work, we demonstrate the successful incorporation of pure fullerene from solution into two-dimensional layered aluminosilicate minerals. Pure fullerenes are insoluble in water and neutral in terms of charge, hence they cannot be introduced into the clay galleries by ion exchange or intercalation from water solution. To overcome this bottleneck, we organically modified the clay with quaternary amines by using well-established reactions in clay science in order to expand the interlayer space and render the galleries organophilic. During the reaction with the fullerene solution, the organic solvent could enter into the clay galleries, thus transferring along the fullerene molecules. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the surfactant molecules, can be selectively removed by either simple ion-exchange reaction (e.g., interaction with Al(NO3)3 solution to replace the surfactant molecules with Al3+ ions) or thermal treatment (heating at 350 °C) to obtain novel fullerene-pillared clay structures exhibiting enhanced surface area. The synthesized hybrid materials were characterized in detail by a combination of experimental techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission, and UV/Vis spectroscopy as well as thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorptiondesorption measurements. The reported fullerene-pillared clay structures constitute a new hybrid system with very promising potential for the use in areas such as gas storage and/or gas separation due to their high surface area.
E-info
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