Title
<tex>$^{1}H$</tex>-NMR study of the metabolome of a moderately hypoxia-tolerant fish, the common carp (**Cyprinus carpio**) <tex>$^{1}H$</tex>-NMR study of the metabolome of a moderately hypoxia-tolerant fish, the common carp (**Cyprinus carpio**)
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Faculty of Sciences. Mathematics and Computer Science
Publication type
article
Publication
,
Subject
Biology
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Metabolomics. - Place of publication unknown
Volume/pages
9(2013) :6 , p. 1216-1227
ISSN
1573-3882
ISI
000326926700009
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
All 20.000 different fish species vary greatly in their ability to tolerate and survive fluctuating oxygen concentrations in the water. Especially fish of the genus Carassius, e.g. the crucian carp and the goldfish, exhibit a remarkable tolerance to limited/absent oxygen concentrations. The metabolic changes of anoxia-tolerant crucian carp were recently studied and published. Contrary to crucian carp, the hypoxia-tolerant common carp cannot survive a complete lack of oxygen (anoxia). Therefore, we studied the 1H-NMR-based metabolomics of brain, heart, liver and white muscle extracts of common carp, subjected to anoxia (0 mg O2 l−1) and hypoxia (0.9 mg O2 l−1) at 5 °C. Specifically, fish were exposed to normoxia (i.e. 9 mg O2 l−1; controls 24 h, 1 week and 2 weeks), acute hypoxia (24 h), chronic hypoxia (1 week) and chronic hypoxia (1 week) with normoxic reoxygenation (1 week). Additionally, we also investigated the metabolic responses of fish to anoxia for 2 h. Both anoxia and hypoxia significantly changed the tissue levels of standard energy metabolites as lactate, glycogen, ATP/ADP and phosphocreatine. Remarkably, anoxia induced increased lactate levels in all tissues except for the heart whereas hypoxia resulted in decreased lactate concentrations in all tissues except for brains. Furthermore, hypoxia and anoxia influenced amino acids (alanine, valine/(iso)leucine) and neurotransmitters levels (GABA, glutamate). Lastly, we also detected other i.e. previously not reported compounds to play a role in the present context. Scyllo-inositol levels changed significantly in heart, liver and muscle, providing novel insights into the anoxia/hypoxic responses of the common carp.
E-info
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