Advances in the sample preparation of brominated flame retardants and other brominated compounds
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Trends in analytical chemistry. - Amsterdam
, p. 189-203
University of Antwerp
This review aims to highlight the recent advances and methodological improvements in sample-preparation techniques applied to the analysis of different brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other brominated chemicals [e.g., naturally-occurring brominated compounds (BCs)]. The principal literature sources are research articles published since 2010. The main selection criteria involved the successful development and application of analytical methods for determination of the target BCs in various matrices. In particular, we discuss sample extraction and clean-up with emphasis on recent technical developments and new strategies for sample preparation. We give priority to extraction techniques using advanced instrumentation to achieve outstanding advantages over traditional extraction methods. We discuss clean-up and fractionation methods for various types of biotic and abiotic samples. We investigated a few new techniques (e.g., solid-phase micro-extraction or pressurized-liquid extraction) for their ability to combine extraction and clean-up steps. Finally, we identify current research gaps associated with extraction and clean-up methodology for BFRs and propose future research perspectives. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.