Retention of mandibular advancement devices in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea : an in vitro pilot study
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Sleep and breathing. - Berlin
, p. 313-318
University of Antwerp
Purpose In order for a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to be efficacious, it must remain seated on the teeth during sleep. Quantitative data on the retentive characteristics of MADs are currently unavailable. The present pilot study is the first to describe an in vitro setup testing the retentive characteristics of different monobloc MADs. Methods A hydraulic cyclic test machine was used with MADs seated on dental casts to measure retention forces upon removal of the MADs. A custom-made monobloc (CM-mono), a thermoplastic monobloc (TP-mono), and a thermoplastic duobloc (TP-duo) configured as a monobloc were tested. Two protrusions were investigated, representing 25 and 65 % of the maximal protrusion. The effects of the type of MAD, duration of the test, and amount of protrusion on removal forces were measured. Results The measured removal forces of all three MADs tested differed significantly, with the TP-duo showing the highest values (P < 0.0001). The effects of wear due to the repetitive cyclic loading became obvious by the production of wear particles in all MADs tested. However, only the TP-duo showed a significant reduction in time in removal forces for both protrusion positions (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0011). The effect of the amount of protrusion on the removal forces differed significantly between all three MADs tested (P = 0.0074). Conclusions This in vitro pilot study reveals significant differences in retention forces for the MADs tested. The findings are consistent with clinical effects of nightly loss of MADs as reported in the literature and are within the range of reported physiological mouth-opening forces. Future research is needed to determine the key design features of MADs that explain these differences.