Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of **Garcinia mangostana** pericarp and <tex>$\alpha$</tex>-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Molecules: a journal of synthetic chemistry and natural product chemistry. - Bazel
, p. 10599-10608
University of Antwerp
Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC50 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC50 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC50 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC50 > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC50 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity.