Infiltration or indoor sources as determinants of the elemental composition of particulate matter inside a school in Wroclaw, Poland?
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Engineering sciences. Technology
Building and environment. - Oxford
, p. 173-180
University of Antwerp
Children's exposure to air pollution requires a focus on air quality in places where they spend most time, e.g. in schools. Therefore, understanding how indoor elemental concentrations relate the outdoor ones is necessary to create healthy indoor school environment. The aims of this study were to examine the elemental composition of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) in the school and also to investigate to what degree indoor elemental concentrations are affected by outdoor air or generated inside the school. The measurements were performed inside and outside the public school building in the centre of the city. It was observed that concentrations of most elements were higher at school than outside. The dominant elements in PM1 both indoors and outdoors were S, Cl, K, and Zn. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions inside the school were clearly enriched in elements of mineral origin, additionally S, Zn, K and Cl were also present in high concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Results suggested that a significant contribution to indoor Zn, Pb and S concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction was from penetration of outdoor air. 88%, 80% and 90% of the observed total variations in indoor concentrations of Zn, Pb, and S were explained by the linear relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The lack of correlation between indoor and outdoor concentrations obtained for Si, Ca, Ti, Sr indicated that these metals were more likely to originate from indoor sources. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.