Field demonstration and evaluation of the passive flux meter on a CAH groundwater plume
This study comprises the first application of the Passive Flux Meter (PFM) for the measurement of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH) mass fluxes and Darcy water fluxes in groundwater at a European field site. The PFM was originally developed and applied to measurements near source zones. The focus of the PFM is extended from near source to plume zones. For this purpose, 48 PFMs of 1.4 m length were constructed and installed in eight different monitoring wells in the source and plume zone of a CAH-contaminated field site located in France. The PFMs were retrieved, sampled, and analyzed after 3 to 11 weeks of exposure time, depending on the expected contaminant flux. PFM evaluation criteria include analytical, technical, and practical aspects as well as conditions and applicability. PFM flux data were compared with so-called traditional soil and groundwater concentration data obtained using active sampling methods. The PFMs deliver reasonable results for source as well as plume zones. The limiting factor in the PFM applicability is the exposure time together with the groundwater flux. Measured groundwater velocities at the field site range from 2 to 41 cm/day. Measured contaminant flux data raise up to 13 g/m(2)/day for perchloroethylene in the plume zone. Calculated PFM flux averaged concentration data and traditional concentration data were of similar magnitude for most wells. However, both datasets need to be compared with reservation because of the different sampling nature and time. Two important issues are the PFM tracer loss during installation/extraction and the deviation of the groundwater flow field when passing the monitoring well and PFM. The demonstration of the PFM at a CAH-contaminated field site in Europe confirmed the efficiency of the flux measurement technique for source as well as plume zones. The PFM can be applied without concerns in monitoring wells with European standards. The acquired flux data are of great value for the purpose of site characterization and mass discharge modeling, and can be used in combination with traditional soil and groundwater sampling methods.
Source (journal)
ESPR Environment science and pollution research international. - Landsberg
Landsberg : 2013
20:7(2013), p. 4621-4634
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Full text (publishers version - intranet only)
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Publication type
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Creation 10.09.2013
Last edited 24.03.2017
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