Sleep quality of benzodiazepine users in nursing homes : a comparative study with nonusersSleep quality of benzodiazepine users in nursing homes : a comparative study with nonusers
Stichele, Vander, Robert H.
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Centre for Research and Innovation in Care (CRIC)
Sleep medicine. - Amsterdam
14(2013):7, p. 614-621
University of Antwerp
Objectives: We aim to describe subjective sleep quality among long-term users of benzodiazepines (BZDs) in Belgian nursing homes, to compare it to nonusers, and to investigate determinants of poor sleep quality. Methods: All mentally competent residents from 10 nursing homes were screened and compiled in a group of long-term BZD users or in a group of nonusers based on the medication chart. We collected demographic, functional, and medication characteristics and global and specific sleep parameters using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Linear regression was used to investigate which parameters were associated with sleep quality. Results: Of the 300 residents, 178 (59%) were long-term BZD users and 122 were nonusers. The 2 groups did not differ in demographic and functional characteristics (mean age, 85.5 y; range, 57-100; 75% women). The users reported significantly more difficulties with falling asleep, had more midnight awakenings, felt less rested in the morning, and had a poorer self-perceived sleep quality compared to nonusers. Sleep duration and time to fall asleep did not differ. The self-perceived sleep quality was mainly determined by difficulties during initiation of sleep. After controlling for demographic, medication, and functional characteristics, BZD use remained strongly associated with poor sleep (r = 0.173; P = .003), and a study centre effect (differences among nursing homes) was observed (r = 0.229; P < .001). Conclusion: Our findings do not support long-term effectiveness of BZDs; long-term users slept more poorly than nonusers and were even more outspoken in users of long-acting BZDs. In future longitudinal comparative studies of sleep quality, unexplained variability needs further assessment with medical, psychologic, and institutional parameters. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.