Quality assessment of virtual prototypes of surgical luminaires using near-field ray-data
Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences
Engineering sciences. Technology
, p. 189-200
Surgical luminaires are an important tool for the surgeon, yet highlighting the wound of a patient is not trivial and surgical luminaires must meet stringent regulatory requirements. Optical requirements and performance indicators are described in the European Standard for surgical luminaires and they must be measured after construction. Surgeons and hospital managers often use these performance indicators to compare different surgical luminaires. The introduction of solid-state lighting and high-power light emitting diodes (LEDs) has initiated a new generation of surgical luminaires. When designing a virtual prototype of a surgical luminaire it would be beneficial to have a cost- and time-effective method to test luminaires for compliance with the European Standard. Unfortunately, far-field intensities do not allow an evaluation of these luminaires with respect to the standard and near-field ray-data must be used. To validate this near-field approach, we used angular- and spatially-resolved ray-data of a luminaire and modeled a virtual setup that corresponds to the setup used in the European Standard. This paper compares illuminances obtained from simulations and photometric measurements of various photometric tests. Good agreement was found: relative differences between simulations and measurements for the central illuminances deviate maximally 0.4 percent ( 3.2 percent, -0.4 percent), while the maximum difference for the various scenarios amounts to 5.6 percent ( 2.2 percent). The technique can be applied to virtual prototypes of surgical luminaires that are composed of optical components such as reflectors and lenses and use spatially- and angular-resolved luminance-data of individual LEDs. This permits us to check compliance with the European Standard before assembly. This method will allow for more economical and time-effective development of new luminaires that maintain the quality requirements.