Normal bladder sensations in healthy volunteers : a focus group investigation
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
New York ,
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Neurourology and urodynamics. - New York
30(2011) :7 , p. 1350-1355
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Aims To describe the bladder sensations experienced during non-invasive rapid bladder filling in a controlled setting in healthy volunteers. Methods Three groups of healthy volunteers, total 11 subjects (4 men, 7 women), participated in three consecutive focus group sessions. Before each session a strict water loading protocol was given. The first two sessions focused on how participants described and experienced bladder sensations in daily life and during a physiological bladder filling with constant focus on their bladder. The third session focused on verifying the interpretation of the data gathered so far and describing the pattern of sensations. Results During the focus group sessions with constant focus on their bladder, all participants experienced their bladder sensation as a continuous progression. Healthy subjects describe their bladder sensation(s) as a pressure and a tingling sensation, but a terminology ranging from no sensations to an absolute need to void is used by all participants and better describes the pattern in which the need to void develops in healthy volunteers. Conclusions By means of focus group research it is possible to describe the development of normal bladder sensation and to refine terminology used by healthy participants. The findings show that two types of bladder sensations are reported spontaneously by healthy uninitiated volunteers, pressure and a tingling sensation, of which the first develops in a continuous manner. The pattern in which the absolute need develops is described by the terms: no sensation, weak awareness, stronger awareness, weak need, stronger need and absolute need to void.