Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in various food items of animal origin collected in four European countries
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Food additives and contaminants : part A : chemistry, analysis, control, exposure and risk assessment. - Abingdon
, p. 1918-1932
University of Antwerp
This study summarises the results of the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 50 selected pooled samples representing 15 food commodities with the special focus on those of animal origin, as meat, seafood, fish, milk, dairy products and hen eggs, which are commonly consumed in various European markets, e.g. Czech, Italian, Belgian and Norwegian. A new, rapid sample preparation approach based on the QuEChERS extraction procedure was applied. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode was used for the quantification of target analytes. Method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the range of 110 ng kg−1 (ng l−1) for fish, meat, hen eggs, cheese and milk, and in the range of 2.5125 ng kg−1 for butter. Only 16 of the group of 21 PFASs were found in at least one analysed sample. From 16 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequently detected analyte present in approximately 50% of samples (in the range of 0.982600 ng kg−1). PFCAs with C8C14 carbon chain were presented in approximately 20% of samples. The concentration ranges of individual compounds in the respective groups of PFASs were: 2.3376.3 ng kg−1 for PFSAs (without PFOS), 4.99961 ng kg−1 for PFCAs, 10.695.4 ng kg−1 for PFPAs, and 1.61519 ng kg−1 for FOSA. The contamination level in the analysed food commodities decreased in the following order: seafood > pig/bovine liver >> freshwater/marine fish > hen egg > meat >> butter. When comparing the total contamination and profiles of PFASs in food commodities that originated from various sampling countries, differences were identified, and the contents decreased as follows: Belgium >> Norway, Italy > Czech Republic.