Risk assessment and spatial chemical variability of PM collected at selected bus stations
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Air quality, atmosphere & health. - Dordrecht, 2008, currens
, p. 1-11
University of Antwerp
The chemical characterization of particulate matter inside and outside of confined bus shelters has been discerned for the first time. Transit patrons are at risk due to the close vicinity of densely trafficked areas resulting in elevated pollution footprints. Incomplete combustion processes, as well as exhaust and wear and tear emissions from public and personal transportation vehicles, are key contributors to degraded urban air quality and are often implicated as causal to various diseases in humans. Urban planning, therefore, includes efficient public transport systems to mitigate the effect. The bus rapid transit system was inaugurated in Curitiba to ensure dedicated traffic lanes, major bus interchanges and semi-confined bus stops called tube stations. To assess the chemical risk that the passengers are exposed to, an investigation of the aerosol inside and outside five of these tube stations was launched. Electron probe X-ray micro-analysis and X-ray fluorescence were used to determine the elemental composition of individual and of bulk particle samples. An aethalometer quantified the black carbon. Elemental concentrations inside the shelters were in general higher than outside, especially for traffic-related elements. The lead concentration exceeded the NAAS standard at times, although the average was below the guideline. The biogenic, organic and soot clusters showed the highest abundance for the city centre sites. The overall carcinogenic risk could be classed as moderate, and the risk was significant at two sites during one of the sampling campaigns. The non-carcinogenic risk is well below the significant value.