Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in matched samples of indoor dust and breast milk in New Zealand
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environment international. - Oxford
, p. 255-261
University of Antwerp
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are present in many consumer goods. There is evidence that PBDEs are toxic to humans, particular young children. The purpose of this study was to assess indoor dust as an exposure source for PBDEs. Concentrations of 16 PBDEs were determined in dust samples from 33 households in New Zealand, and in breast milk samples from 33 mothers living in these households. Associations between dust and breast milk PBDE concentrations were assessed, and children's PBDE intake from breast milk and dust estimated. Influences of household and demographic factors on PBDE concentrations in dust were investigated. Indoor dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 ng/g for BDE17 to 2500 ng/g for BDE209. Breast milk concentrations were positively correlated (p < 0.05) with mattress dust concentrations for BDE47, BDE153, BDE154, and BDE209 and with floor dust for BDE47, BDE183, BDE206, and BDE209. The correlation for BDE209 between dust and breast milk is a novel finding. PBDE concentrations in floor dust were lower from households with new carpets. The estimated children's daily intake of PBDEs from dust and breast milk was below U.S. EPA Reference Dose values. The study shows that dust is an important human exposure source for common PBDE formulations in New Zealand. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.