Title
The use of synchrotron radiation for the characterization of artists' pigments and paintingsThe use of synchrotron radiation for the characterization of artists' pigments and paintings
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Research group
AXES (Antwerp X-ray Analysis, Electrochemistry and Speciation)
Antwerp X-ray imaging and instrumentation laboratory (AXiL)
Publication type
article
Publication
Palo Alto, Calif :Annual Reviews,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Annual review of analytical chemistry / Annual Reviews, Inc. - Palo Alto, Calif, 2008, currens
Volume/pages
6(2013), p. 399-425
ISSN
1936-1327
ISI
000323887500019
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
We review methods and recent studies in which macroscopic to (sub)microscopic X-ray beams were used for nondestructive analysis and characterization of pigments, paint microsamples, and/or entire paintings. We discuss the use of portable laboratory- and synchrotron-based instrumentation and describe several variants of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis used for elemental analysis and imaging and combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Macroscopic and microscopic (μ-)XRF variants of this method are suitable for visualizing the elemental distribution of key elements in paint multilayers. Technical innovations such as multielement, large-area XRF detectors have enabled such developments. The use of methods limited to elemental analysis or imaging usually is not sufficient to elucidate the chemical transformations that take place during natural pigment alteration processes. However, synchrotron-based combinations of μ-XRF, μ-XAS, and μ-XRD are suitable for such studies.
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