Title
Evidence for metalsupport interactions in Au modified <tex>$TiO_{x}/SBA-15$</tex> materials prepared by photodeposition Evidence for metalsupport interactions in Au modified <tex>$TiO_{x}/SBA-15$</tex> materials prepared by photodeposition
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Subject
Physics
Source (journal)
ACS catalysis
Volume/pages
3(2013) :12 , p. 3041-3049
ISSN
2155-5435
ISI
000328231400044
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles have been efficiently photodeposited onto titanate-loaded SBA-15 (Ti(x)/SBA-15) with different titania coordination. Transmission electron microscopy shows that relatively large Au nanoparticles are photodeposited on the outer surface of the Ti(x)/SBA-15 materials and that TiOx tends to form agglomerates in close proximity to the Au nanoparticles, often forming coreshell Au/TiOx structures. This behavior resembles typical processes observed due to strong-metal support interactions. In the presence of gold, the formation of hydrogen on Ti(x)/SBA-15 during the photodeposition process and the performance in the hydroxylation of terephthalic acid is greatly enhanced. The activity of the Au/Ti(x)/SBA-15 materials is found to depend on the TiOx loading, increasing with a larger amount of initially isolated TiO4 tetrahedra. Samples with initially clustered TiOx species show lower photocatalytic activities. When isolated zinc oxide (ZnOx) species are present on Ti(x)/SBA-15, gold nanoparticles are smaller and well dispersed within the pores. Agglomeration of TiOx species and the formation of Au/TiOx structures is negligible. The dispersion of gold and the formation of Au/TiOx in the SBA-15 matrix seem to depend on the mobility of the TiOx species. The mobility is determined by the initial degree of agglomeration of TiOx. Effective hydrogen evolution requires Au/TiOx coreshell composites as in Au/Ti(x)/SBA-15, whereas hydroxylation of terephthalic acid can also be performed with Au/ZnOx/TiOx/SBA-15 materials. However, isolated TiOx species have to be grafted onto the support prior to the zinc oxide species, providing strong evidence for the necessity of TiOSi bridges for high photocatalytic activity in terephthalic acid hydroxylation.
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