Antiprotozoal screening of extracts from leaves, stem bark and root bark of **Vismia guineensis** (L.) Choisy.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
West African journal of research for health
, p. 45-49
University of Antwerp
To evaluate in vitro the antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activies of extracts obtained from leaves,stem bark and root bark of Vismia guineensis. For each plant party, three types of extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol 70%) were prepared by maceration in accordance with the increasing polarity of these solvents. Extracts denoted as Vgl1, Vgl2, Vgl3 for leaves, Vgb1 Vgb2, Vgb3 for stem bark, Vgr1,Vgr2, Vgr3 for root bark. These plant extracts were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishamania infantum, chloroquine-sensitive Ghanaian strain of Plasmodium falciparum , and MRC-5 cell lines. The most pronounced antiprotozoal activities and cytotoxicity were observed of apolar extracts from leaves, stem bark and root bark. Five extracts: Vgl2, Vgb1, Vgb2, Vgr1, Vgr2 exhibited pronounced inhibitory activity (IC5 against at least one selected protozoa. Ethyl acetate extracts from leaves (Vgb2) and stem bark (Vgb2) were found to exhibit pronounced and good antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma sp with IC50 values Vgl2 : 6.80 (T. brucei􀀂􀀝􀀂􀀵􀀫􀀂􀀔􀀐􀀒􀀛􀀋􀀎􀀂􀀔􀀐􀀒􀀗􀀂􀀊T.cruzi􀀂􀀝􀀂 SI 6,97), Vgt2: 6.75 (T. brucei􀀂􀀝􀀂􀀵􀀫􀀂􀀓􀀐􀀓􀀗􀀋􀀎􀀂􀀔􀀐􀀓􀀖􀀂􀀊T. cruzi 􀀝􀀂􀀵􀀫􀀂􀀖􀀐􀀒􀀓􀀋􀀐 Extract from stem bark (Vgt1) showed ytotoxicity Plasmodium falciparum IC50 Phytochemical investigations led to the isolation anthraquinone type compounds from these, 3-geranyloxy-6- methyl 1,8 dihydroxyanthraquinone, 3-O-(E-3-hydroxymethylbut-2 enyl)-emodin, 3-O-(3-hydroxymethyl-4- hydroxybut-2-enyl)-emodin. These results can partly support the traditional use of Vismia guineensis for the treatment of parasitic diseases.