Title
Catalyst-free microwave-assisted conversion of free fatty acids in triglyceride feedstocks with high acid content Catalyst-free microwave-assisted conversion of free fatty acids in triglyceride feedstocks with high acid content
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Faculty of Applied Engineering Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
Oxford ,
Subject
Physics
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
Renewable energy. - Oxford
Volume/pages
68(2014) , p. 524-528
ISSN
0960-1481
ISI
000335706800057
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
The catalyst-free microwave-assisted conversion of free fatty acids (FFA) to alkyl esters in triglyceride feedstocks with a high acid content was studied. To this end, esterification of FFA with higher alcohols was investigated using the response surface modelling approach (RSM). A model was constructed using stearic acid and 1-butanol. The influence of reaction temperature and the FFA content in the triglyceride feedstock were studied by varying both parameters on 5 levels between 175 °C and 275 °C, and 30 mass% and 100 mass% FFA respectively. Afterwards, the general applicability of the model was verified using other FFA, fatty acid distillates (FAD) from industry and other alcohols. When using other FFA, FAD or primary alcohols other than 1-butanol, the model is able to accurately predict the actual conversion with a typical deviation between actual and predicted data of 2%. After 1 h of reaction at temperatures above 250 °C, conversions over 90% were reached.
E-info
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