PVSG and WHO vs European clinical, molecular and pathological criteria for prefibrotic myeloproliferative neoplasms
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
University Hospital Antwerp
World journal of hematology
, p. 71-88
University of Antwerp
The Polycythemia Vera Study Group (PVSG), World Health Organization (WHO) and European Clinical, Molecular and Pathological (ECMP) classifications agree upon the diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera (PV) and advanced primary myelofibrosis (MF). Essential thrombocythemia (ET) according to PVSG and 2007/2008 WHO criteria comprises three variants of JAK2V617F mutated ET when the ECMP criteria are applied. These include normocellular ET, hypercellular ET with features of early PV (prodromal PV), and hypercellular ET due to megakaryocytic, granulocytic myeloproliferation (ET.MGM). Evolution of prodromal PV into overt PV is common. Development of MF is rare in normocellular ET (WHO-ET) but rather common in hypercellular ET.MGM. The JAK2V617F mutation burden in heterozygous mutated normocellular ET and in heterozygous/homozygous or homozygous mutated PV and ET.MGM is of major prognostic significance. JAK2/MPL wild type ET associated with prefibrotic primary megakaryocytic and granulocytic myeloproliferation (PMGM) is characterized by densely clustered immature dysmorphic megakaryocytes with bulky (bulbous) hyperchromatic nuclei, which are never seen in JAK2V617F mutated ET, and PV and also not in MPL515 mutated normocellular ET (WHO-ET). JAK2V617 mutation burden, spleen size, LDH, circulating CD34+ cells, and pre-treatment bone marrow histopathology are mandatory to stage the myeloproliferative neoplasms ET, PV, PMGM for proper prognosis assessment and therapeutic implications. MF itself is not a disease because reticulin fibrosis and reticulin/collagen fibrosis are secondary responses of activated polyclonal fibroblasts to cytokines released from the clonal myeloproliferative granulocytic and megakaryocytic progenitor cells in ET.MGM, PV and PMGM.