Multi-element analysis of urine by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Analytica chimica acta. - Amsterdam
, p. 167-175
University of Antwerp
For multi-element analysis of human urine, 25-ml samples doped with yttrium as internal standard are evaporated gently and then ashed up to 460°C overnight. The residue is pelletized and analysed by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. Acid addition to facilitate the digestion is not mandatory. Recoveries are nearly quantitative for traces of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Sr, to a lesser extent for lead, but not for arsenic or selenium. The standard deviation per measurement is typically around 6%. The detection limits are such that some 10 elements can be determined simultaneously in normal urine, and possibly more in cases of importance to toxicology or industrial hygiene.