Aerosols in Santiago de Chile : a study using receptor modeling with X-ray fluorescence and single particle analysis
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Atmospheric environment: part B: urban atmosphere. - Oxford
, p. 227-241
University of Antwerp
Between 15 January and 26 February 1987, 51 fine and coarse mode aerosol samples were collected at the Universidad de Santiago de Chile Planetarium using a dichotomous sampler. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for up to 17 elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb). Aerosol particles were individually studied by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA). The data set consisting of aerosol elemental concentrations and meteorological variables was subjected to Principal Factor Analysis (PFA), allowing the identification of six fine mode particle source classes (soil, industrial, sulfate particles, traffic, residual oil, wood-burnings), and five coarse mode particle source classes (soil, industrial, traffic, residual oil, sulfate particles). Both PFA solutions explained about 81 and 90% of the total variance in the data set, respectively. The regression of elemental mass concentrations on the Absolute Principal Factor Scores allowed the estimation of the contribution of the different source classes to the Santiago aerosol. Within the fine fraction, secondary SO42− particles were responsible for about 49% of the fine mode aerosol mass concentration, while 26, 13, 6.4 and 5.6% were attributed to wood-burning/car exhausts, residual oil combustion, soil dust/metallurgical, and soil dust/wood-burning releases, respectively. The coarse fraction source apportionment was mainly dominated by soil dust, accounting for 74% of the coarse mode aerosol mass concentration. A composite of soil dust and industrial release accounted for 13%; a composite of secondary sulfates contributed with 9%; a composite of soil dust and automotive emissions, and secondary sulfates were responsible for 4 and 0.03% of the coarse aerosol mass concentration, respectively. EPMA results are in satisfactory agreement with those from the bulk analysis and allowed the identification of eight particle types in both fine and coarse mode aerosols, pertaining to different source classes, namely soil, seaspray, secondary SO42−, metallurgical emissions and biomass burning release. EPMA also evidenced that one of the most abundant particle types corresponded to marine aerosol, having an average diameter of 0.7 μm for the fine mode and 2.2 μm for the coarse mode aerosol. LAMMA results indicate that, in fact, seaspray has been transported into the city of Santiago de Chile airshed, suffering several transformations and a sulfur enrichment. This analytical technique also provided evidence of the abundance of carbon-rich particles, which were not detected by either the bulk X-ray analysis or EPMA; they are probably due to fossil-fuel combustion releases.