Title
A XANES study of chromophores : the case of black glass A XANES study of chromophores : the case of black glass
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Publication type
article
Publication
Cambridge ,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Analytical methods / Royal Society of Chemistry [Londen] - Cambridge
Volume/pages
6(2014) :8 , p. 2662-2671
ISSN
1759-9660
ISI
000333524200032
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
We studied the Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge (XANES) spectra of several Roman black glass fragments in order to determine the Fe3+/ΣFe ratio of these materials. The selected archaeological glass samples cover the period 1st5th century AD in nine different sites of the North Western provinces of the Roman Empire. The fragments belong to two different compositional groups demonstrating a diachronic evolution: early Roman HMG (High Magnesia Glass) and Roman Imperial LMG (Low Magnesia Glass). The first group contains natural Fe levels (below 2 wt% as Fe2O3), while the LMG has concentrations above 5 wt%. This difference is also reflected by Fe3+/ΣFe values. Low iron glass was produced under strongly reducing conditions in order to obtain the black colour, with average Fe3+/ΣFe values ≈ 0.17. LMG glass is somewhat more oxidised (Fe3+/ΣFe ≈ 0.40.5). While HMG glass required active control of the furnace environment, LMG was made under ambient atmosphere and its higher oxidation degree is mainly determined by the chemistry of the raw glass.
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