Title
Engineering single crystalline <tex>$Mn_{3}O_{4}$</tex> nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets for high performance lithium ion batteries Engineering single crystalline <tex>$Mn_{3}O_{4}$</tex> nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets for high performance lithium ion batteries
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Cambridge ,
Subject
Physics
Chemistry
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
Nanoscale / Royal Society of Chemistry. - Cambridge
Volume/pages
6(2014) :12 , p. 6819-6827
ISSN
2040-3364
ISI
000337143900072
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Well shaped single crystalline Mn3O4 nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets at different particle sizes have been synthesized and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that the smallest sized Mn3O4 nano-octahedra show the best cycling performance with a high initial charge capacity of 907 mA h g−1 and a 50th charge capacity of 500 mA h g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1 and the best rate capability with a charge capacity of 350 mA h g−1 when cycled at 500 mA g−1. In particular, the nano-octahedra samples demonstrate a much better electrochemical performance in comparison with irregular shaped Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The best electrochemical properties of the smallest Mn3O4 nano-octahedra are ascribed to the lower charge transfer resistance due to the exposed highly active {011} facets, which can facilitate the conversion reaction of Mn3O4 and Li owing to the alternating Mn and O atom layers, resulting in easy formation and decomposition of the amorphous Li2O and the multi-electron reaction. On the other hand, the best electrochemical properties of the smallest Mn3O4 nano-octahedra can also be attributed to the smallest size resulting in the highest specific surface area, which provides maximum contact with the electrolyte and facilitates the rapid Li-ion diffusion at the electrode/electrolyte interface and fast lithium-ion transportation within the particles. The synergy of the exposed {011} facets and the smallest size (and/or the highest surface area) led to the best performance for the Mn3O4 nano-octahedra. Furthermore, HRTEM observations verify the oxidation of MnO to Mn3O4 during the charging process and confirm that the Mn3O4 octahedral structure can still be partly maintained after 50 dischargecharge cycles. The high Li-ion storage capacity and excellent cycling performance suggest that Mn3O4 nano-octahedra with exposed highly active {011} facets could be excellent anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
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