Differences in the seasonal variation of brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in office dustDifferences in the seasonal variation of brominated and phosphorus flame retardants in office dust
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environment international. - Oxford
65(2014), p. 100-106
University of Antwerp
This study documents the temporal variability in concentrations of flame retardants (FRs) in floor dust from three offices in Beijing, China. Dust from Office A (DAD) was collected weekly from March to August, 2012, and sampling of dust from Office B and C (OBD and OCD) was conducted fortnightly (each two weeks) from March to December 2012. With intensive and continuous sampling, we report for the first time on clear and coherent temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in indoor dust. The observed mean concentrations of Sigma 9PBDEs, Sigma 4NBFR5 and Sigma 9PFRs, were 554, 11,100 and 128,000 ng g(-1) in OAD; 7560, 5000 and 17,300 ng g(-1) in OBD; and 4750, 3550 and 17,200 ng g(-1) in OCD, respectively. With exception of PBDEs, concentrations of FRs were elevated in OAD than in OBD and OCD. Two to ten-fold variations were observed between the minimum and maximum concentrations of FRs in the same office, indicating that the sampling moment exerts a substantial influence on the level of FR contamination. Different seasonality was distinctively found between BFRs and PFRs. Except for a few occasional abnormal values, BFR levels in office dust were generally constant among different seasons. The abundance rank order for PFRs was: winter > autumn > summer, with peak values occurring in late winter and early spring. This pattern may be attributable to the fact that PFRs are more sensitive to temperature changes compared to PBDEs and NBFRs owning to their higher volatilities. The absence of significant seasonal variation for BFR concentrations in indoor dust compared to outdoor air and dust concentrations is also discussed. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.