Organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust from Egypt : implications for human exposure
Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environmental science and technology / American Chemical Society. - Easton, Pa
, p. 4782-4789
University of Antwerp
Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have been proposed as alternatives for the phased out PBDE formulations. However, there exists no information on indoor dust contamination with PFRs in Africa. In this study, we report-for the first time-on levels and profiles of PFRs in dust samples from Egyptian houses (n = 20), offices (n = 20), cars (n = 20), and public microenvironments (PMEs; n = 11). Results revealed that PFR levels in Egyptian indoor dust are among the lowest reported worldwide. This may be attributed to less strict fire-safety standards and lack of regulatory actions against PBDEs. Triphenylphosphate was the only PFR detected in all samples with highest average concentration (386 ng g(-1)). While tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate and tris-1,3-dichloropropylphosphate showed higher detection frequency (DF = 69%, 57%, and 56%; average = 233, 229, and 144 ng g(-1) respectively), tri(2-butoxyexthyl)phosphate (37%; 294 ng g(-1)) displayed the second highest average concentration. Statistical analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Sigma PFRs in cars (average = 1011 ng g(-1)) and PMEs (2167 ng g-1) than in houses (310 ng g(-1)) and offices (450 ng g(-1)). Estimated exposures of adults and toddlers to PFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reported reference doses, indicating no immediate health risk to the Egyptian population.