Title
Space motion sickness countermeasures : a pharmacological double-blind, placebo-controlled studySpace motion sickness countermeasures : a pharmacological double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Research group
Biophysics and Biomedical Physics
Laboratory Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics (LEMP)
Translational Neurosciences (TNW)
Human molecular genetics
Publication type
article
Publication
Washington, D.C.,
Subject
Sociology
Economics
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Aviation, space and environmental medicine. - Washington, D.C., 1975, currens
Volume/pages
85(2014):6, p. 638-644
ISSN
0095-6562
ISI
000336478200007
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Introduction: Space motion sickness (SMS), caused by a canal-otolith conflict, is currently treated with intramuscular promethazine. However, the drug has an inconsistent efficacy against SMS. We hypothesize that pharmacological depression of the semicircular canals (SCC) might relieve SMS. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of meclizine (25 mg), dimenhydrinate (40 mg) combined with cinnarizine (25 mg), and promethazine (25 mg) combined with d-amphetamine (10 mg) on the SCCs and the otoliths. Methods:This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 20 healthy men. Function of the SCC was evaluated by means of an electronystagmography, whereas utricular function was assessed by a unilateral centrifugation test. A cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials test evaluated saccular function. Results:Meclizine (0.54 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.06) and dimenhydrinate with cinnarizine (0.54 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.05) decreased the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain. Promethazine with d-amphetamine decreased the latency of the saccadic eye response (right eye: 185 +/- 3.8 ms vs. 165 +/- 4.5 ms; left eye: 181 +/- 4.9 ms vs. 165 +/- 4.8 ms) and also increased the phase of ocular counterrolling measured during unilateral centrifugation (0.32 +/- 0.35 degrees vs. 1.5 +/- 0.45 degrees). Discussion: It is hypothesized that meclizine and dimenhydrinate with cinnarizine affect the medial vestibular nucleus. Promethazine is a vestibular suppressor, but study results show that d-amphetamine counterbalances this depression and abolishes the effect of fatigue on the saccadic reaction time The hypothesis that a SCC-suppression alleviates SMS should be further evaluated.
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