Sex-specific associations between Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and cognitive domains in late-life depression
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Psychoneuroendocrinology. - Oxford
, p. 169-177
University of Antwerp
Background: Although it is well established that late-life depression is associated with both systemic low-graded inflammation and cognitive impairment, the relation between inflammation and cognition in depressed older persons is still equivocal. The objective of this study is to examine the association between plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations and cognitive functioning in late-life depression, including the potentially moderating role of sex. Methods: A total of 369 depressed older persons (>= 60 years) from The Netherlands study of Depression in Older persons (NESDO) were included. Four cognitive domains, i.e. verbal memory, processing speed, interference control and attention were assessed with three cognitive tests (Stroop test, Wais Digit span test, and Rey's verbal learning test). Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with the four cognitive domains as dependent variables adjusted for confounders. Results: The association between NGAL levels and specific cognitive domains were sex-specific. In women, higher NGAL levels were associated with impaired verbal memory and lower processing speed. In men, higher NGAL levels were associated with worse interference control. Higher NGAL levels were not associated with attention. No sex-specific associations of either high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) with cognitive functioning were found. Conclusion: This study shows sex-specific association of NGAL with cognitive functioning in late-life depression. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.