Field assessment of guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron particles for in-situ remediation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
Journal of contaminant hydrology. - Oxford
, p. 88-99
University of Antwerp
A pilot injection test with guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles was performed at test site V (Belgium) where different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) were present as pollutants in the subsurface. One hundred kilograms of 56 pm-diameter mZVI (similar to 70 g L-1) was suspended in 1.5 m(3) of guar gum (similar to 7 g L-1) solution and injected into the test area. In order to deliver the guar gum stabilized mZVI slurry, one direct push bottom-up injection (Geoprobe) was performed with injections at 5 depths between 10.5 and 8.5 m bgs. The direct push technique was preferred above others (e.g. injection at low flow rate via screened wells) because of the limited hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, and to the large size of the mZVI particles. A final heterogeneous distribution of the mZVI in the porous medium was observed explicable by preferential flow paths created during the high pressure injection. The maximum observed delivery distance was 2.5 m. A significant decrease in 1,1,1-TCA concentrations was observed in close vicinity of spots where the highest concentration of mZVI was observed. Carbon stable isotope analysis (CSIA) yielded information on the success of the abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and indicated a heterogeneous spatio-temporal pattern of degradation. Finally, the obtained results show that mZVI slurries stabilized by guar gum can be prepared at pilot scale and directly injected into low permeable aquifers, indicating a significant removal of 1,1,1-TCA. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.