Title
Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
New York, ,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Journal of polymer science: B: polymer physics. - New York,
Volume/pages
52(2014) :19 , p. 1291-1300
ISSN
0887-6266
ISI
000341246900006
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the absolute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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