Short cigarette smoke exposure facilitates sensitisation and asthma development in mice
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
The European respiratory journal. - Copenhagen
, p. 1189-1199
Epidemiological studies indicate that cigarette smoke exposure is a risk factor for increased sensitisation and asthma development. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cigarette smoke on sensitisation and allergic airway inflammation in response to a low dose of house dust mite (HDM), and to obtain potential mechanistic insights. Mice were exposed to low doses of HDM extract combined with air or cigarette smoke exposure, either during allergen sensitisation or during the development of allergic airway disease. Mice concomitantly exposed to low-dose HDM, combined with cigarette smoke for 3 weeks, demonstrated an asthmatic phenotype with significantly increased airway eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, airway hyperresponsiveness and a rise in HDM-specific serum immunoglobulin G1, compared to sole HDM or cigarette smoke exposure. In addition, short cigarette smoke inhalation, during the initial contact with HDM allergens, was sufficient to facilitate sensitisation and development of a complete asthmatic phenotype after rechallenge with HDM. Mechanistically, short cigarette smoke exposure amplified dendritic cell-mediated transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled HDM allergens to the intrathoracic lymph nodes and generated a local T-helper cell type 2 response. Short cigarette smoke exposure is sufficient to facilitate allergic sensitisation and the development of low-dose HDM-induced allergic asthma, possibly by affecting dendritic cell function.