Growth inhibition by miR-519 via multiple p21-inducing pathways
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Molecular and cellular biology. - Washington, D.C.
, p. 2530-2548
The microRNA miR-519 robustly inhibits cell proliferation, in turn triggering senescence and decreasing tumor growth. However, the molecular mediators of miR-519-elicited growth inhibition are unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the influence of miR-519 on gene expression profiles leading to growth cessation in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. By analyzing miR-519-triggered changes in protein and mRNA expression patterns and by identifying mRNAs associated with biotinylated miR-519, we uncovered two prominent subsets of miR-519-regulated mRNAs. One subset of miR-519 target mRNAs encoded DNA maintenance proteins (including DUT1, EXO1, RPA2, and POLE4); miR-519 repressed their expression and increased DNA damage, in turn raising the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p21. The other subset of miR-519 target mRNAs encoded proteins that control intracellular calcium levels (notably, ATP2C1 and ORAI1); their downregulation by miR-519 aberrantly elevated levels of cytosolic [Ca2+] storage in HeLa cells, similarly increasing p21 levels in a manner dependent on the Ca2+-activated kinases CaMKII and GSK3 beta. The rises in levels of DNA damage, the Ca2+ concentration, and p21 levels stimulated an autophagic phenotype in HeLa and other human carcinoma cell lines. As a consequence, ATP levels increased, and the level of activity of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) declined, further contributing to the elevation in the abundance of p21. Our results indicate that miR-519 promotes DNA damage, alters Ca2+ homeostasis, and enhances energy production; together, these processes elevate the expression level of p21, promoting growth inhibition and cell survival.