Chemical modification of class II G protein-coupled receptor ligands : frontiers in the development of peptide analogs as neuroendocrine pharmacological therapies
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Pharmacology and therapeutics. - Oxford
, p. 39-54
Recent research and clinical data have begun to demonstrate the huge potential therapeutic importance of ligands that modulate the activity of the secretin-like, Class II, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Ligands that can modulate the activity of these Class II GPCRs may have important clinical roles in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as osteoporosis, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders. While these receptors present important new therapeutic targets, the large glycoprotein nature of their cognate ligands poses many problems with respect to therapeutic peptidergic drug design. These native peptides often exhibit poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, poor receptor selectivity and resultant low potencies in vivo. Recently, increased attention has been paid to the structural modification of these peptides to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Successful modification strategies have included D-amino acid substitutions, selective truncation, and fatty acid acylation of the peptide. Through these and other processes, these novel peptide ligand analogs can demonstrate enhanced receptor subtype selectivity, directed signal transduction pathway activation, resistance to proteolytic degradation, and improved systemic bioavailability. In the future, it is likely, through additional modification strategies such as addition of circulation-stabilizing transferrin moieties, that the therapeutic pharmacopeia of drugs targeted towards Class II secretin-like receptors may rival that of the Class I rhodopsin-like receptors that currently provide the majority of clinically used GPCR-based therapeutics. Currently, Class II-based drugs include synthesized analogs of vasoactive intestinal peptide for type 2 diabetes or parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.