Respiratory impedance to ambient pressure changes at low frequencies
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Journal of applied physiology / American Physiological Society. - Washington, D.C.
, p. 665-671
Respiratory impedance may be studied by measuring airway flow (Vaw) when pressure is varied at the mouth (input impedance) or around the chest (transfer impedance). A third possibility, which had not been investigated so far, is to apply pressure variations simultaneously at the two places, that is to vary ambient pressure (Pam). This provides respiratory impedance to ambient pressure changes (Zapc = Vaw/Pam). In that situation airway impedance (Zaw) and tissue impedance (Zt) are mechanically in parallel, and both are in series with alveolar gas impedance (Zg): Zapc = Zaw + Zg + Zaw.Zg/Zt. We assessed the frequency dependence of Zapc from 0.05 to 2 Hz in nine normal subjects submitted to sinusoidal Pam changes of 2-4 kPa peak to peak. The real part of Zapc (Rapc) was of 6.2 kPa.1(-1).s at 0.05 Hz and decreased to 1.9 kPa.1(-1).s at 2 Hz. Similarly the effective compliance (Capc), computed from the imaginary part of Zapc, decreased from 0.045 1.kPa-1 at 0.05 Hz to 0.027 1.kPa-1 at 2 Hz. Breathing against an added resistance of 0.46 kPa.1(-1).s exaggerated the negative frequency dependence of both Rapc and Capc. When values of airway resistance and inertance derived from transfer impedance data were introduced, Zapc was used to compute effective tissue resistance (Rt) and compliance (Ct). Rt was found to decrease from 0.32 to 0.15 kPa.1(-1).s and Ct from 1.11 to 0.64 1.kPa-1 between 0.25 and 2 Hz. Ct was slightly lower with the added resistance. These results are in good agreement with the data obtained by other approaches.