Effect of virus-specific antibodies on attachment, internalization and infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in primary macrophages
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology: an international journal of comparative immunology. - Amsterdam
, p. 179-188
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces respiratory distress in young pigs and reproductive failure in sows. In PRRSV infected pigs, virus persists for several weeks to several months. Although IPMA antibodies are detected from 7 days post inoculation (pi), virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies are commonly detected starting from 3 weeks pi with an SN test on Marc-145 cells. Since infection of Marc-145 cells is quite different compared to infection of macrophages, the in vivo target cell. the role of these VN antibodies in in vivo protection is questionable. In our study, we demonstrated that antibodies from pigs early in infection with PRRSV Lelystad virus (14 days pi) showed no neutralization in the SN test on Marc-145 cells, but partially reduced Lelystad virus infection of porcine alveolar macrophages. At 72 days pi, VN antibodies were detected by the SN test on Marc-145 cells, and these protected macrophages completely against Lelystad virus infection. In contrast, these VN antibodies only partially reduced porcine alveolar macrophage infection of a Belgian PRRSV isolate (homologous virus), and had no effect on infection of porcine alveolar macrophages with the American type VR-2332 strain (heterologous virus). Confocal analysis of Lelystad virus attachment and internalization in macrophages showed that antibodies blocked infection through both a reduction in virus attachment, and a reduction of PRRSV internalization. Western immunoblotting analysis revealed that sera from 14 days pi, which showed no neutralization in the SN test on Marc-145 cells but partially reduced Lelystad virus infection of macrophages, predominantly recognized the Lelystad virus N protein, and reacted faintly with the M envelope protein. Sera from 72 days pi, with VN antibodies that blocked infection of Marc-145 cells and PAM, reacted with the IN protein and the two major envelope proteins M and GP(5). Using the Belgian PRRSV isolate 94V360 an identical but less intense reactivity profile was obtained. VN sera also recognized the VR-2332 N and M protein, but not the GP(5) protein. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.