Title
Understanding the evolution of the windlass mechanism of the human foot from comparative anatomy : insights, obstacles, and future directions
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Publication type
article
Publication
Philadelphia, Pa ,
Subject
Philosophy
Biology
Source (journal)
American journal of physical anthropology. - Philadelphia, Pa
Volume/pages
156(2015) :1 , p. 1-10
ISSN
0002-9483
ISI
000346698800001
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Humans stand alone from other primates in that we propel our bodies forward on a relatively stiff and arched foot and do so by employing an anatomical arrangement of bones and ligaments in the foot that can operate like a windlass. This is a significant evolutionary innovation, but it is currently unknown when during hominin evolution this mechanism developed and within what genera or species it originated. The presence of recently discovered fossils along with novel research in the past two decades have improved our understanding of foot mechanics in humans and other apes, making it possible to consider this question more fully. Here we review the main elements thought to be involved in the production of an effective, modern human-like windlass mechanism. These elements are the triceps surae, plantar aponeurosis, medial longitudinal arch, and metatarsophalangeal joints. We discuss what is presently known about the evolution of these features and the challenges associated with identifying each of these specific components and/or their function in living and extinct primates for the purpose of predicting the presence of the windlass mechanism in our ancestors. In some cases we recommend alternative pathways for inferring foot mechanics and for testing the hypothesis that the windlass mechanism evolved to increase the speed and energetic efficiency of bipedal gait in hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:1-10, 2015 (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
E-info
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https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/iruaauth/623a6d/e38122815.pdf
Handle