Title
Determinants of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in urine of Flemish adolescents Determinants of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in urine of Flemish adolescents
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Social Sciences. Sociology
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
Subject
Chemistry
Biology
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Environmental research
Volume/pages
134(2014) , p. 110-117
ISSN
0013-9351
ISI
000346817100016
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
As part of the second Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II), bisphenol-A (BPA) and different phthalate metabolites were analyzed, for the first time, in the urine of 210 adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. All chemicals had a detection frequency above 90%. For all compounds, except the sum of DEHP, highest levels were detected during spring. Average values for the Flemish adolescents were in an agreement with concentrations found in different international studies, all confirming the ubiquity of BPA and phthalate exposure. There was a significant correlation between BPA and the different phthalate metabolites (r between 0.26 and 039; p < 0.01). Shared sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates, such as food packaging, were suggested to be responsible for this positive correlation. Different determinants of exposure were evaluated in relation to the urinary concentrations of these chemicals. For BPA, a significant association was observed with household income class, smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. For phthalates, the following significant associations were observed: age (MBzP), educational level of the adolescent (MBzP), equivalent household income (MnBP), use of personal care products (MnBP and MBzP), wall paper in house (MnBP and MBzP) and use of local vegetables (MnBP and MBzP). (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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