Stable performance of non-aerated two-stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process controlStable performance of non-aerated two-stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process control
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
Engineering sciences. Technology
5(2012):3, p. 425-432
Partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) technologies have rapidly developed over the last decade, but still considerable amounts of energy are required for active aeration. In this study, a non-aerated two-stage PANAM process was investigated. In the first-stage upflow fixed-film bioreactor, nitratation could not be prevented at ammonium loading rates up to 186 mg N l-1 d-1 and low influent dissolved oxygen (0.1 mg O2 l-1). Yet, increasing the loading rate to 416 and 747 mg N l-1 d-1 by decreasing the hydraulic retention time to 8 and 5 h, respectively, resulted in partial nitritation with the desired nitrite to ammonium nitrogen ratio for the subsequent anammox stage (0.711.05). The second-stage anammox reactor was established with a synthetic feeding based on ammonium and nitrite. After establishing anammox at low biomass content (0.5 g VSS l-1), the anammox influent was switched to partial nitritation effluent at a loading rate of 71 mg N l-1 d-1, of which 78% was removed at the stoichiometrically expected nitrite to ammonium consumption ratios (1.19) and nitrate production to ammonium consumption ratio (0.24). The combined PANAM reactors were operated for 3 months at a stable performance. Overall, PANAM appeals economically, saving about 50% of the energy costs, as well as technically, given straightforward operational principles.