Diet, exercise, and endothelial function in obese adolescents
van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Pediatrics. - Evanston, Ill.
, p. E653-E661
University of Antwerp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction is the first, although reversible, sign of atherosclerosis and is present in obese adolescents. The primary end point of this study was to investigate the influence of a multicomponent treatment on microvascular function. Additional objectives and end points were a reduced BMI SD score, improvements in body composition, exercise capacity, and cardiovascular risk factors, an increase in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and a decrease in endothelial microparticles (EMPs). METHODS: We used a quasi-randomized study with 2 cohorts of obese adolescents: an intervention group (n = 33; 15.4 ± 1.5 years, 24 girls and 9 boys) treated residentially with supervised diet and exercise and a usual care group (n = 28; 15.1 ± 1.2 years, 22 girls and 6 boys), treated ambulantly. Changes in body mass, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, microvascular endothelial function, and circulating EPCs and EMPs were evaluated after 5 months and at the end of the 10-month program. RESULTS: Residential intervention decreased BMI and body fat percentage, whereas it increased exercise capacity (P < .001 after 5 and 10 months). Microvascular endothelial function also improved in the intervention group (P = .04 at 10 months; + 0.59 ± 0.20 compared with + 0.01 ± 0.12 arbitrary units). Furthermore, intervention produced a significant reduction in traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = .012 at 10 months). EPCs were increased after 5 months (P = .01), and EMPs decreased after 10 months (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: A treatment regimen consisting of supervised diet and exercise training was effective in improving multiple adolescent obesity-related end points.