Diet, exercise, and endothelial function in obese adolescentsDiet, exercise, and endothelial function in obese adolescents
van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Translational Pathophysiological Research (TPR)
Laboratory Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics (LEMP)
Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy (REVAKI)
2015Evanston, Ill., 2015
Pediatrics. - Evanston, Ill.
135(2015):3, p. E653-E661
University of Antwerp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction is the first, although reversible, sign of atherosclerosis and is present in obese adolescents. The primary end point of this study was to investigate the influence of a multicomponent treatment on microvascular function. Additional objectives and end points were a reduced BMI SD score, improvements in body composition, exercise capacity, and cardiovascular risk factors, an increase in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and a decrease in endothelial microparticles (EMPs). METHODS: We used a quasi-randomized study with 2 cohorts of obese adolescents: an intervention group (n = 33; 15.4 ± 1.5 years, 24 girls and 9 boys) treated residentially with supervised diet and exercise and a usual care group (n = 28; 15.1 ± 1.2 years, 22 girls and 6 boys), treated ambulantly. Changes in body mass, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, microvascular endothelial function, and circulating EPCs and EMPs were evaluated after 5 months and at the end of the 10-month program. RESULTS: Residential intervention decreased BMI and body fat percentage, whereas it increased exercise capacity (P < .001 after 5 and 10 months). Microvascular endothelial function also improved in the intervention group (P = .04 at 10 months; + 0.59 ± 0.20 compared with + 0.01 ± 0.12 arbitrary units). Furthermore, intervention produced a significant reduction in traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = .012 at 10 months). EPCs were increased after 5 months (P = .01), and EMPs decreased after 10 months (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: A treatment regimen consisting of supervised diet and exercise training was effective in improving multiple adolescent obesity-related end points.