Title
Graphene ripples as a realization of a two-dimensional Ising model : a scanning tunneling microscope study Graphene ripples as a realization of a two-dimensional Ising model : a scanning tunneling microscope study
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
Lancaster, Pa ,
Subject
Physics
Source (journal)
Physical review: B: condensed matter and materials physics
Physical review : B : condensed matter and materials physics. - Lancaster, Pa, 1998 - 2015
Volume/pages
91(2015) :4 , 6 p.
ISSN
1098-0121
1550-235X
1098-0121
Article Reference
045413
Carrier
E-only publicatie
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Ripples in pristine freestanding graphene naturally orient themselves in an array that is alternately curved-up and curved-down; maintaining an average height of zero. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to apply a local force, the graphene sheet will reversibly rise and fall in height until the height reaches 60%-70% of its maximum at which point a sudden, permanent jump occurs. We successfully model the ripples as a spin-half Ising magnetic system, where the height of the graphene plays the role of the spin. The permanent jump in height, controlled by the tunneling current, is found to be equivalent to an antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition. The thermal load underneath the STM tip alters the local tension and is identified as the responsible mechanism for the phase transition. Four universal critical exponents are measured from our STM data, and the model provides insight into the statistical role of graphene's unusual negative thermal expansion coefficient.
Full text (open access)
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/irua/112271/9578.pdf
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