Title
Human white blood cells synthesize morphine : CYP2D6 modulation Human white blood cells synthesize morphine : CYP2D6 modulation
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Publication type
article
Publication
Baltimore, Md ,
Subject
Human medicine
Source (journal)
The journal of immunology. - Baltimore, Md
Volume/pages
175(2005) :11 , p. 7357-7362
ISSN
0022-1767
ISI
000233544200036
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Abstract
Human plasma contains low, but physiologically significant, concentrations of morphine that can increase following trauma or exercise. We now demonstrate that normal, human white blood cells (WBC), specifically polymorphonuclear cells, contain and have the ability to synthesize morphine. We also show that WBC express CYP2D6, an enzyme capable of synthesizing morphine from tyramine, norlaudanosoline, and codeine. Significantly, we also show that morphine can be synthesized by another pathway via L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Finally, we show that WBC release morphine into their environment. These studies provide evidence that 1) the synthesis of morphine by various animal tissues is more widespread than previously thought and now includes human immune cells. 2) Moreover, another pathway for morphine synthesis exists, via L-DOPA, demonstrating an intersection between dopamine and morphine pathways. 3) WBC can release morphine into the environment to regulate themselves and other cells, suggesting involvement in autocrine signaling since these cells express the mu 3 opiate receptor subtype.
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